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InP wafers VGF CZ Growth method N-type S doped P type Zn doped EPI-ready 2、3、4、6inch semiconductor materials

    InP wafers’ abstract

    Indium Phosphide (InP), with CAS No. 22398-80-7 and a melting point of 1600°C, belongs to the III-V family of binary compound semiconductors. It possesses a face-centered cubic crystal structure known as “zinc blende,” which is common among III-V semiconductors. InP is synthesized from high-purity indium and phosphorus elements, typically with purities of 6N to 7N, and grown into single crystals using techniques such as Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) or Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF).

    Indium Phosphide crystals can be doped to exhibit n-type, p-type, or semi-insulating conductivity, making them suitable for further fabrication into wafers up to 6 inches (150 mm) in diameter. This semiconductor material is characterized by its direct band gap, excellent electron and hole mobility, and efficient thermal conductivity.

    At Western Minmetals (SC) Corporation, prime or test grade Indium Phosphide (InP) wafers are available with p-type, n-type, or semi-insulating conductivity. These wafers come in sizes ranging from 2 to 6 inches (up to 150 mm) in diameter, with orientations of <111> or <100>, and thicknesses ranging from 350 to 625 micrometers. Surface finishes include etched and polished or Epi-ready processes. Additionally, single crystal ingots of Indium Phosphide in sizes from 2 to 6 inches can be provided upon request.

    For customers seeking polycrystalline or multi-crystal Indium Phosphide (InP) ingots, options include dimensions of diameter (60-75) x length (180-400) mm and weights ranging from 2.5 to 6.0 kg. These ingots have carrier concentrations of less than 6E15 or between 6E15 and 3E16. Customized specifications are available upon request to meet specific application requirements.

    InP wafers’ properties

    InP wafers’ data chart(partly)

    TypeSemi-InsulatedN-TypeP-TypeNP Type
    DopantFeS, SnZnUndoped
    Growth Method VGF
    Diameter2″, 3″, 4″, 6″
    Thickness  (µm) 350-675um ±25um
    Carrier Concentration(0.8-8)*1018(0.8-8)*1018(1-10)*1015
    Resistivity (ohm-cm)>0.5*107
     Mobility (cm2/V.S.)>10001000-250050-1003000-5000
    Etch Pitch Density (/cm2)<5000<5000<500<500
    TTV  [P/P] (µm)<10
    TTV  [P/E] (µm)<15
    Warp (µm)<15
    Surface FinishedP/P, P/E, E/E
    Diameter2″, 3″,4″,6″,8″
    Thickness100um, 200um, 300 um, 400 um, 500 um
    TypeP type, N type
    DopantUndopped, S, Fe, Zn
    PolishingSSP, DSP
    1. Direct Band Gap: InP wafers has a direct band gap, which means that it efficiently absorbs and emits light. This property makes it suitable for optoelectronic devices such as lasers, photodetectors, and solar cells.
    2. High Electron and Hole Mobility: InP wafers exhibits superior electron and hole mobility compared to other semiconductors like silicon. This high mobility is advantageous for high-frequency and high-speed electronic devices, such as high-speed transistors and integrated circuits.
    3. Thermal Conductivity:InP wafers has efficient thermal conductivity, allowing it to dissipate heat effectively. This property is crucial for ensuring the reliability and performance of semiconductor devices, especially those operating at high power levels.
    4. Crystal Structure: InP wafers typically has a face-centered cubic crystal structure known as “zinc blende,” which is common among III-V compound semiconductors. This crystal structure provides mechanical stability and facilitates the growth of high-quality single crystals, essential for semiconductor device fabrication.
    5. Doping Flexibility: InP wafers can be doped to exhibit n-type, p-type, or semi-insulating conductivity, providing flexibility in designing and fabricating various semiconductor devices with desired electrical properties.
    6. Wafer Dimensions and Orientation: InP wafers are available in various sizes, typically ranging from 2 to 6 inches (up to 150 mm) in diameter, with orientations of <111> or <100>. These options allow for the customization of wafer specifications based on specific device requirements.

    InP wafers’ showcase

    InP wafers
    InP wafers

    InP wafers’ applications

    1. Optoelectronics:
      • Lasers: InP wafers are used to fabricate semiconductor lasers for telecommunications, optical fiber networks, laser printers, and optical storage devices.
      • Photodetectors: InP wafers are employed in photodetectors for optical communication systems, remote sensing, imaging, and spectroscopy.
      • Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs): InP-based LEDs are utilized in various lighting applications, display technologies, and indicators.
      • Solar Cells: InP wafers are used in high-efficiency solar cells for photovoltaic applications due to their excellent light absorption properties.
    2. High-Frequency Electronics:
      • High-Speed Transistors: InP wafers enable the fabrication of high-frequency transistors and integrated circuits for applications in radar systems, satellite communications, and wireless networks.
      • Microwave Devices: InP wafers are employed in microwave amplifiers, oscillators, and switches for radar, aerospace, and wireless communication systems.
    3. Integrated Circuits:
      • InP wafers are used to manufacture high-performance integrated circuits (ICs) for applications requiring high-speed data processing, such as telecommunications, signal processing, and aerospace systems.
    4. Sensors and Detectors:
      • InP-based devices are utilized in sensors and detectors for various applications, including environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics, industrial process control, and security systems.
    5. Quantum Computing:
      • InP quantum dots and other nanostructures are investigated for their potential applications in quantum computing and quantum information processing due to their unique quantum properties.
    6. THz Electronics:
      • InP wafers are explored for developing terahertz (THz) electronic devices, such as THz sources, detectors, and modulators, for applications in imaging, spectroscopy, and wireless communication.

    InP wafers’ summary

    Indium Phosphide (InP)InP wafers stands out as a pivotal III-V compound semiconductor, representing a novel generation of electronic materials post the era of Silicon (Si) and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs). Its distinctive characteristics include a melting point soaring to 1335 + 7 Kelvin, requiring high-pressure extraction from 27.5 atmospheres. Consequently, synthesizing polycrystalline InP proves challenging, with crystal growth presenting even greater hurdles due to the perpetually high-temperature, high-pressure environment.

    Moreover, InP crystals are notoriously elusive to obtain, with single crystal growth under such conditions exacerbating thermal stresses, rendering wafer processing complex. Additionally, InP’s susceptibility to stacking faults and twinning further complicates the production of high-quality crystals. Consequently, InP polishing currently commands a premium of 3 to 5 times higher than GaAs in equivalent areas. Despite these challenges, research into InP materials remains considerably less comprehensive than that of Si, GaAs, and other counterparts.

    In terms of performance, InP wafers demonstrates superiority over GaAs in several respects, particularly in applications requiring high-speed and high-frequency characteristics. Its electron peak drift speed surpasses that of GaAs under high electric fields, making it a prime candidate for ultra-high-speed and ultra-high-frequency device fabrication. Moreover, InP boasts a direct transition bandgap of 1.35 electron volts, aligning with the lowest transmission loss band in optical fiber communications. Additionally, InP exhibits enhanced thermal conductivity and heat dissipation efficiency compared to GaAs, bolstering its suitability for continuous-wave (CW) device manufacturing.

    In device fabrication, InP offers notable advantages over GaAs. Notably, InP devices tout higher current peak-valley ratios, translating to heightened conversion efficiency vis-à-vis GaAs counterparts. Its inertia energy time constant, merely half that of GaAs, enables InP devices to operate at twice the frequency limit. Furthermore, InP’s superior thermal conductivity lends itself to better noise characteristics in InP-based devices.

    InP wafers finds widespread application as a substrate material across various sectors. In the realm of photoelectric devices, encompassing light sources (LEDs, LDs) and detectors (PDs, APDs), InP plays a pivotal role in optical fiber communication systems. InP’s bandwidth, measured at 1.34 electron volts, facilitates the production of high-efficiency and radiation-resistant solar cells, crucial for space satellite applications. Electronic devices leveraging InP, such as high-speed, high-frequency microwave devices and image sensors, find utility in millimeter-wave communication, anti-collision systems, and other emerging fields.

    While current utilization of InP microwave devices and circuits predominantly targets military applications, ongoing technological advancements herald a broader transition towards civilian and dual-use applications, underscoring InP’s promising developmental trajectory and boundless potential.

    The preparation and industrial status of InP substrates

    Indium Phosphide (InP) has emerged as an indispensable semiconductor material for optoelectronic and microelectronic devices. In this article, we will provide a detailed overview of the preparation and industrial status of InP single crystal substrates.

    I. Introduction to InP Properties

    Indium Phosphide (InP) is a compound semiconductor material with a zinc blende crystal structure, characterized by its soft and brittle texture and silver-gray luster. With a melting point of 1335±7 Kelvin and a phosphorus saturation vapor pressure of 27.5 atmospheres near its melting point, synthesizing InP polycrystals via melt-based methods proves challenging, while alternative methods incur higher costs. Compared to Si and GaAs materials, InP exhibits high efficiency in electro-optical conversion, high electron mobility, elevated operating temperatures, robust radiation resistance, and excellent thermal conductivity.

    InP finds widespread application in fields such as terahertz (THz) technology, lasers, solar cells, photodetectors, and optical fiber network systems, including last-mile fiber and data center transmissions.

    II. Methods for InP Polycrystal Preparation

    Several methods exist for synthesizing InP polycrystalline materials, including Horizontal Bridgman (HB) and Horizontal Gradient Freeze (HGF) techniques, Solvent-Solubility-Diffusion (SSD) synthesis, and In-situ Synthesis methods involving P injection, P liquid sealing, and various modifications. Presently, the primary industrial methods for synthesizing InP polycrystals involve HB/HGF techniques.

    Horizontal Bridgman (HB) / Horizontal Gradient Freeze (HGF) Overview:

    InP polycrystals are synthesized by reacting phosphorus vapor with molten indium. When the temperature of the indium melt exceeds the melting point of InP, phosphorus vapor is absorbed by the indium melt until the entire indium melt is transformed into InP melt.

    III. InP Single Crystal Growth Technology

    The growth of InP single crystals involves the transition of a liquid phase to a solid phase, constituting a phase change process. Single crystal growth can be categorized into vertical and horizontal growth methods. Commonly used single crystal growth methods include Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC), Modified LEC, Vapor Pressure Control LEC (VCz or PC-LEC, also known as Hot-Wall Cz HW-Cz), Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF), Vertical Bridgman (VB), Horizontal Gradient Freeze (HGF), and Horizontal Bridgman (HB) techniques. In crystal preparation, critical technologies include thermal field design and twin control. From a technological and cost perspective, LEC technology is the primary method for producing large-sized crystals, while VGF/VB methods are used to produce low-dislocation substrates.

    IV. Substrate Types

    InP substrates are primarily categorized based on their electrical conductivity into semiconductor and semi-insulating substrates.

    Semiconductor substrates are further divided into N-type and P-type semiconductor substrates. Typically, In2S3 and Sn are used as dopants for N-type substrates, while ZnP2 is used for P-type substrates. Various dopants are employed to provide different conductivity types for device manufacturing.

    N-type doping with Sn in InP is mainly used for laser diodes. N-type doping with S in InP is used not only for laser diodes but also for photodetectors, with the necessity of defect-free doping for avoiding leakage currents generated by dislocations. Therefore, dislocation-free doping is essential, and since sulfur has a significant impurity hardening effect in InP, dislocation-free single crystals can be easily grown. P-type doping with Zn in InP is primarily used for high-power laser diodes. Zn also has a strong impurity hardening effect, thereby reducing dislocations. Low dislocation levels are crucial for improving the lifetime of lasers.

    Semi-insulating substrates are categorized based on whether they are doped or undoped. Doped semi-insulating substrates typically use Fe2P as a dopant, while undoped semi-insulating substrates are obtained by high-temperature annealing of high-purity InP single crystal substrates. Semi-insulating substrates are primarily used in RF device manufacturing.

    Question and Answer

    What are InP wafers?

    A trialkyl indium molecule and phosphide mixture can similarly be thermally decomposed to form indium phosphide. Because of its better electron velocity than the more popular semiconductors silicon and gallium arsenide, inP is utilized in high-power and high-frequency circuits.

    InP wafers are semiconductor substrates made from indium phosphide (InP) material. These wafers are used as a platform for the fabrication of electronic and optoelectronic devices. InP wafers offer unique properties suitable for a wide range of applications, including high-speed transistors, photodetectors, lasers, solar cells, and integrated circuits.

    The fabrication process typically involves growing a single crystal of InP material and then slicing it into thin wafers. These wafers undergo various processing steps, such as polishing, doping, and patterning, to create the desired electronic or optoelectronic devices. InP wafers are characterized by their high electron mobility, direct bandgap, and excellent thermal conductivity, making them well-suited for applications requiring high-performance semiconductor materials.

    What is InP semiconductor?

    Indium phosphide (InP) refers to a binary semiconductor that consists of indium (In) and phosphorus (P). Like gallium arsenide (GaAs) semiconductors that come with a zincblende crystal structure, InP is classified under a group of materials that belong to the III-V semiconductors.

    InP semiconductor refers to indium phosphide, a compound semiconductor material composed of indium (In) and phosphorus (P) atoms. InP is part of the III-V semiconductor family, which includes materials formed from elements in groups III and V of the periodic table.

    Indium phosphide (InP) possesses unique electronic and optical properties that make it suitable for a wide range of applications in the semiconductor industry. Some key characteristics of InP semiconductor include:

    1. Direct bandgap: InP has a direct bandgap, which means that it can efficiently emit and absorb light. This property makes it ideal for optoelectronic devices such as lasers, photodetectors, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
    2. High electron mobility: InP exhibits high electron mobility, allowing for the fabrication of high-speed transistors and other electronic devices with excellent performance at high frequencies.
    3. Thermal stability: InP has good thermal conductivity and stability at high temperatures, making it suitable for applications in harsh environments and high-power electronic devices.
    4. Radiation resistance: InP is relatively resistant to radiation damage, making it suitable for use in space applications and other environments with high radiation levels.

    Overall, InP semiconductor materials play a crucial role in various industries, including telecommunications, aerospace, solar energy, and consumer electronics, due to their unique combination of electronic and optical properties.

    What is the molecule of InP?

    Indium phosphide (InP) is a binary semiconductor composed of indium and phosphorus. It has a face-centered cubic (“zincblende”) crystal structure, identical to that of GaAs and most of the III-V semiconductors.

    How are InP wafers made?

    Indium phosphide (InP) wafer are manufactured by the reaction of indium iodide and white phosphorus at the temperature of 400 °C. In addition, it can also be manufactured by integrating the clean components at high pressure and high temperature.

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